VarianFry

 1907 Oct 15th b. New York.
   American Journalist 
 1927 Friend of Alfred Barr at Harvard.
    founded Hound & Horn, an influential literary quarterly, with  
    Lincoln Kirstein -> while an undergraduate at Harvard.

 1935 Fry visited Berlin as a foreign correspondent for the American journal 
    Living Age witnessing Nazi savagery against Jews on more than one 
    occasion. 
    Greatly disturbed by what he saw, he helped raise money to support European 
    anti-Nazi movements.

 1937 m. Eileen Avery Hughes.

 1940 Aug.14th. Arrived Marseille as an agent of the newly formed  
    Emergency Rescue Committee and aided by Alfred Barr and his wife, and s 
    support from [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor_Roosevelt|Eleanor Roosevelt ~>.
    in an effort to help persons wishing to flee the Nazis. 
    Lives and works at Hotel Splendide
    Fry had $3,000 and a short list of refugees under imminent threat of arrest 
    and internment. 
    Clamoring at his door came anti-Nazi writers, avant-garde artists, musicians 
    and hundreds of others desperately seeking any chance to escape from France.
    Sept; opened office for the Centre Americane de Secors (CAS) at 60 Rue 
    Grignon.
    Oct 20th Employed Danny Benedite as his chef de cabinet.
    Theo Benedite became one of Fry's assistant.
    Danny introduces him to Jean Gemahling.
    Oct; with funds provided by Mary Jane Gold he approves the rental of 
    Villa Air-Bel 
    for his staff and Victor Serge and Andre Breton and their families. 
    Shotly after he moves in as well. 
    More than 2,200 people were taken across the border to Spain and thence to the 
    safety of neutral Portugal from which they made their way to the United 
    States. 
    Others he helped escape on ships leaving Marseille for the French colony of 
    Martinique.
    Also working with Fry was a young academic named  Albert O. Hirschman ->. 
    He Received 500,000 francs from Peggy Guggenheim.
    Especially instrumental in getting Fry the visas he needed for the artists, 
    intellectuals and political dissidents on his list 
    was Hiram Bingham IV ->, an American Vice Consul in Marseille 
    who fought against State Department anti-Semitism and was personally 
    responsible for issuing thousands of visas, both legal and illegal.
    Dec; New York ofice tries to replace him.

 1941  Jan; moves offices to 18 Blvd. Garibaldi
    Feb; American Consulate refused to renew his passport unless he returned 
    immediately to America
    March; with Hiram Bingham visits Marc Chagall and his wife Bella in Gordes 
    to try and persuade them to leave France.
    March 25th. Wifredo Lam, Helena Holtzer? leave on a ship to Martinique.
    Aug. 29th Arrested and Expelled.
    Sept 14th. Left France for Lisbon.

 1942 Dec. issue of The New Republic, he wrote a scathing article titled: 
    The Massacre of Jews in Europe.

 1945 Back home in the United States, Fry published his book about his time in 
    France under the title, Surrender on Demand. 
    He wrote and spoke critically against U.S. immigration policies particularly 
    relating to the issue of the fate of Jews in Europe.

 1950 m. Annette Riley.

 1964 Charged with publication of commemorative album of lithographs for 1941 
    rescues. 
    Visits Europe to secure collaboration of Picasso, Chagall, Ernst, Jacques Lipchitz?, 
    Miro.

 1967 Awarded  The Croix de Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor.
    d. Sept. 13th. Connecticut.

    Posthumous
  1990? Honorary citizen of Israel.

    See wiki -> and web -> and Memory of a Hero ~>.

    Among those Fry aided were the following:

    Hannah Arendt ->
    Jean Arp
    Hannah Arendt
    Hans Aufricht
    Hans Bellmer
    Georg Bernhard
    Victor Brauner 
    Andre Breton
    Camille Bryen 
    De Castro 
    Marc Chagall
    Frederic Delanglade
    Oscar Dominguez 
    Marcel Duchamp
    Heinrich Ehrmann
    Max Ernst
    Edvard Fendler 
    Lion Feuchtwanger 
    Leonard Frank 
    Giuseppe Garetto 
    Oscar Goldberg 
    Emil S. Gumbel 
    Hans Habe 
    Jacques-Salomon Hadamard 
    Konrad Heiden 
    Jacques Herold 
    Wilhelm Herzog 
    Erich Itor-Kahn
    Berthold Jacob 
    Heinz Jolles 
    Siegfried Kracauer
    Arthur Koestler 
    Wifredo Lam 
    Jacqueline Lamba 
    Wanda Landowska 
    Lotte Leonard 
    Jacques Lipchitz? 
    Alma Mahler  
    Jean Malaquais 
    Golo Mann 
    Heinrich Mann 
    Valeriu Marcu 
    Andre Masson 
    Roberto Matta 
    Walter Mehring ->
    Alfredo Mendizabel 
    Otto Meyerhof ->
    Boris Mirkine-Guetzevitch
    Hans Namuth
    Hans Natonek 
    Ernst-Erich Noth 
    Max Ophuls 
    Hertha Pauli
    Benjamin Peret 
    Alfred Polgar 
    Poliakoff-Litovzeff 
    Peter Pringsheim 
    Denise Restout 
    Hans Sahl 
    Jacques Schiffrin 
    Anna Seghers 
    Victor Serge 
    Ferdinand Springer 
    Bruno Strauss 
    Sophie Taeuber 
    Franz Werfel 
    Gropius Werfel
    Kurt Wolff 
    Helen Wolff 
    Wols 
    Ylla 



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