1907 Oct 15th b. New York.
1927 Friend of Alfred Barr at Harvard.
founded Hound & Horn, an influential literary quarterly, with
Lincoln Kirstein -> while an undergraduate at Harvard.
1935 Fry visited Berlin as a foreign correspondent for the American journal
Living Age witnessing Nazi savagery against Jews on more than one
Greatly disturbed by what he saw, he helped raise money to support European
1937 m. Eileen Avery Hughes.
1940 Aug.14th. Arrived Marseille as an agent of the newly formed
Emergency Rescue Committee and aided by Alfred Barr and his wife, and s
support from [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor_Roosevelt|Eleanor Roosevelt ~>.
in an effort to help persons wishing to flee the Nazis.
Lives and works at Hotel Splendide
Fry had $3,000 and a short list of refugees under imminent threat of arrest
Clamoring at his door came anti-Nazi writers, avant-garde artists, musicians
and hundreds of others desperately seeking any chance to escape from France.
Sept; opened office for the Centre Americane de Secors (CAS) at 60 Rue
Oct 20th Employed Danny Benedite as his chef de cabinet.
Theo Benedite became one of Fry's assistant.
Danny introduces him to Jean Gemahling.
Oct; with funds provided by Mary Jane Gold he approves the rental of
for his staff and Victor Serge and Andre Breton and their families.
Shotly after he moves in as well.
More than 2,200 people were taken across the border to Spain and thence to the
safety of neutral Portugal from which they made their way to the United
Others he helped escape on ships leaving Marseille for the French colony of
Also working with Fry was a young academic named Albert O. Hirschman ->.
He Received 500,000 francs from Peggy Guggenheim.
Especially instrumental in getting Fry the visas he needed for the artists,
intellectuals and political dissidents on his list
was Hiram Bingham IV ->, an American Vice Consul in Marseille
who fought against State Department anti-Semitism and was personally
responsible for issuing thousands of visas, both legal and illegal.
Dec; New York ofice tries to replace him.
1941 Jan; moves offices to 18 Blvd. Garibaldi
Feb; American Consulate refused to renew his passport unless he returned
immediately to America
March; with Hiram Bingham visits Marc Chagall and his wife Bella in Gordes
to try and persuade them to leave France.
March 25th. Wifredo Lam, Helena Holtzer? leave on a ship to Martinique.
Aug. 29th Arrested and Expelled.
Sept 14th. Left France for Lisbon.
1942 Dec. issue of The New Republic, he wrote a scathing article titled:
The Massacre of Jews in Europe.
1945 Back home in the United States, Fry published his book about his time in
France under the title, Surrender on Demand.
He wrote and spoke critically against U.S. immigration policies particularly
relating to the issue of the fate of Jews in Europe.
1950 m. Annette Riley.
1964 Charged with publication of commemorative album of lithographs for 1941
Visits Europe to secure collaboration of Picasso, Chagall, Ernst, Jacques Lipchitz?,
1967 Awarded The Croix de Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor.
d. Sept. 13th. Connecticut.
1990? Honorary citizen of Israel.
See wiki -> and web -> and Memory of a Hero ~>.
Among those Fry aided were the following:
Hannah Arendt ->
Emil S. Gumbel
Walter Mehring ->
Otto Meyerhof ->