RemediosVaro

    Spanish  Painter and Writer.

 1908 b. Dec 16th María de los Remedios Alicia Rodriga Varo y Uranga 
    in Angles, Girona, Spain. 
    Spent her childhood travelling with her father, a hydraulic engineer in Spain 
    and North Africa.
 1913 The date figuring as her birth on her gravestone and in her passport 
    but not on her birth certificate.

 1924 Studies painting at the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid. 
    The year Salvador Dali returned to the academy after his expulsion.

 1927 Photo with Navarrean painter Gerardo Lizarraga ~> who she later marries.

 1930 m. Gerardo Lizarraga in San Sebastian. Travels to Paris.

 1932 Returns to Spain, living in Barcelona.   
    Meets Esteban Frances and though still living with Lizarraga,
    starts an affair and shares a studio with him in the Plaza de Lesseps.

 1935 Frequents the "Logicophobiste" group. 
    May; Participates in a group exhibition sponsored by ADLAN (Amics de L'Art 
    Nou)    
    Exhibition of drawings with Jose Luis Florit in Madrid. 
    Separates from Lizarraga.
    July; Barcelona with Marcel Jean, Oscar Dominguez and Esteban Frances. 
    Participates in a series of Cadavre Exquis
    Meets Paul Eluard who came to give a lecture and poetry reading.
    Anatomy Lesson ~> and other collages.

 1936 Death of her younger brother Luis who sided with Franco.
    Double Agent
    Oct; meets and starts affair with  Benjamin Peret who dedicates 
    his volume of love poetry Je sublime to her.
    Exhibits with Logophobists at Catalonia de Barcelona gallery.

 1937 Spring; Follows Peret to Paris living in a menage a trois with him 
    and Esteban Frances. 
    Lives in poverty occasionally working as a conferance translator
    Meets Joan Miro, Max Ernst, Wolfgang Paalen, Salvador Dali, 
    Rene Magritte, Andre Breton and Leonora Carrington all of whom 
    became friends as well as inspirations.
    Participates in several Surrealist activities including the International 
    Surrealist Exhibit in Tokyo and Surrealist Objects and Poems exhibition in 
    London (Painted Oberct - now lost).
    The French Surrealist periodical Minotaur publishes her work "Desire."
    Suspected of forging works by Giorgio de Chirico in collaboration with 
    Oscar Dominguez.

 1938 ''El Hambre ~>.
    January; exhibits in Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme at the 
    Galerie Beaux-Arts, Paris; organized by Andre Breton & Marcel Duchamp. 
    The Souls of the Mountain influenced by Wolfgang Paalen's fumage technique.
    Experimented with dropped wax Vegetal Puppets.
    Meets and has an affair with Victor Brauner who probably inspires 
    On the Roof of the World.
    Some of her works  published in Trayectoire du rave and Visage du monde. 
    Exhibits (with other Surrealists) in the Gallery Robert Amsterdam of Paris.

 1940 Feb: Peret imprisoned. varo briefly imprisoned
    Varo goes to the cinema with Chiqui Weisz. 
    The preceding short was one made by Weisz on concentration camps, where Varo 
    saw her ex Gerardo Lizarraga. 
    With the help of Weisz she was able to locate and bribe his freedom.
    June.  Oscar Dominguez helps her flee south to Canet-Plage, close to 
    Perpignan.
    Affair with Victor Brauner and moved with him to Marseilles where 
    many of the Surrealists, Andre Breton, [Max Ernst]], Oscar Dominguez, 
    among others are waiting for their exit visas.
    Joined by Benjamin Peret.

 1941 Oct; Peret and Varo are invited to stay in Villa Air-Bel by 
    Danny Benedite and Theo Benedite.
    Nov; with Peret and with assistance of CAS escapes to Mexico via 
    Casablanca by ship, arriving in Mexico City at the end of the year. 
    They meet many friends from Europe, including Gerardo Lizarraga, 
    Esteban Frances, Leonora Carrington, Gunther Gerszo, 
    Kati Horna and Jose Horna, and Chiqui Weisz. 
    They were key figures in the Mexican emigre surrealist community which  
    included Leonora Carrington, Frida Kahlo, Wolfgang Paalen and 
    Diego Rivera.
    Met Eva Sulzer who would become one of her greatest friends.

 1942 Writes Lady Milagra a story on the theme of the magical ability of 
    women. 
    Develops an extraordinary friendship with Leonora Carrington. 
    Works for Clardecor, hand painting designs on to furniture and musical 
    instruments. 
    Designs costumes for theatrical productions and illustrates promotional 
    literature for the pharmaceutical firm Casa Bayer.

 1946  
    with Gerardo Lizarraga, Jose Horna, Leonora Carrington, Gunther 
    Gerszo, Benjamin Peret, and Miriam Wolf at the wedding of Carrington and
    Chiki Weisz? in  Mexico City.
    Meets Sonja Sekula.

 1947-1949 Separates from Peret who returns to Paris. 
    Meets the French pilot and adventurer Jean Nicolle who becomes her great 
    love. 
    Participates in the International Surrealist Exhibit in Gallery Maeght, Paris. 
    Travels to Venezuela with Nicolle. 
    Her brother Rodrigo is the chief of epidemiology for the Ministry of Public 
    Health in Maracay and lives in Venezuela with his family, including Varo's 
    mother, Dona Ignacia Uranga y Bergareche. 
    Varo gets a job doing technical drawing for the Venezuelan Ministry of Public 
    Health. 
    Together with Nicolle explores the isolated region of south-central Venezuela. 
    Remains in Venezuela until the beginning of 1949.

 1953 Marries Walter Gruen, an Austrian exile and successful businessman 
    in Mexico City who she had met in the early 1940s. 
    Gruen encourages her to resume painting. 

 1955 Participates with four paintings in her first Mexican exhibition at the 
    Galeria Diana. 
    Invited to have a solo exhibition there. 
    Paints Revelation, or The Clockmaker and The Useless Science, or The 
    Alchemist.

 1958? Participates in the First Salon of Women's Art at the Galeri­as Excelsior 
    of Mexico, together with Leonora Carrington, Alice Rahon, 
    Bridget Tichenor and other women painters. 
    3,000-peso first prize for her paintings Harmony and Be Brief.
    Keeps studying mysticism. 
    Reads texts of alchemy, sacred geometry, the I Ching. 
    Explores the ideas of Jung, Gurdjieff, Ouspensky, Blavatsky, Meister Eckhart, 
    the Sufis, and the legends of the Holy Grail.
    Painted Creation of the Birds.

 1959 Period of experimentation. 
    She works in a mural commission for the new Cancer Pavilion of the Medical 
    Center in Mexico City. 
    Begins work on her only surviving sculpture, the Homo Rodans.
    Under the pseudonym Halicko von Fuhrangschmidt, a German anthropologist, she 
    writes De Homo Rodans published posthumously in '1970.

 1960 Biennial Panamericana de Pintura in Mexico City with Raul Anguiano, 
    Gustavo Montoya and Leonora Carrington.

 1961 Painted Unsubmissive ~>.

 1962? Second solo exhibition at the Galeri­a Juan Martin, Mexico City.

 1963 Paints Phenomenon of Weightlessness and her last picture 
    Still Live Reviving ~>.
    Edouard Jaguer publishes book about Varo. 

    d. Oct. 8th. in Mexico City, of a heart attack.

    See Work -> and website ~>.
    See the blogs here ->,  
    and here ->.
    also 5 part History ~>.

    Varo was also influenced by styles as diverse as those of Francisco Goya, 
    El Greco, Pablo Picasso, and Georges Braque. 
    While Andre Breton was a formative influence in her understanding of Surrealism, 
    some of her paintings bear an uncanny resemblance to the Surrealist creations 
    of Giorgio de Chirico. 
    In Mexico, she was influenced by pre-Columbian art.
    Varo's 1963 painting The Lovers -> served as inspiration for some 
    of the images used by Madonna in the music video for her 1995 single "Bedtime Story".
    Exhibitions: Tokyo (1937), Paris (1938), Amsterdam (1938), Mexico City (1949), 
    New York (1942), Paris (1947)

    Bibliography 
    Remedios Varo: Unexpected Journeys -> (2000) Janet Kaplan 

    See Timeline