MaryReynolds

 1891? b. in Minneapolis as Mary Hubachek.
   American surrealist book binder; 
   Though never a formal member of theSurrealists.

 1913 BA from Vasser.
 1916 Back home in Minneapolis, she married Matthew Givens Reynolds, 
   the son of a St. Louis judge.
   Moved to Greenwich Village.

 1919 Having survived the trenches Matthew dies of influenza.

 1921 April; arrived Paris. Introduced Man Ray and the composer Virgil Thomson 
   to each other.
   Close friends with Peggy Guggenheim and Djuna Barnes.
   Affair with Laurence Vail.

 1920's She studied with the Parisian master bookbinder Pierre Legrain (1888 - 1929) 
   and applied her skills to books given to her by such friends as Max Ernst, 
   Man Ray, Paul Eluard, Andre Breton, Jean Cocteau, Raymond Queneau
   Alfred Jarry and Salvador Dali. 
   She chose surprising and unorthodox materials, among them toad skins, corset stays, 
   broken teacup handles, thermometers, sponge rubber, and kid gloves. 
   Although the books were significant among the Surrealist movement, Reynolds 
   did not exhibit any of her bindings, possibly out of modesty or indifference to recognition.

 1923 Started her affair with Marcel Duchamp which lasted until WWII. 
   Met Nancy Cunard.

 1924 Confessed her affair to Henri-Pierre Roche.

 1929 Photo of her with Constantin Brancusi, and Marcel Duchamp at Villefranche. 
  []

 1930's Her house 14, rue Halle, with her quiet garden was the favored spot after 
   dinner for the likes of Duchamp, Constantin Brancusi, Man Ray, Andre Breton, 
   Djuna Barnes, Peggy Guggenheim, Paul Eluard, Mina Loy, James Joyce, 
   Jean Cocteau, Samuel Beckett, and others.

 1933 Trip to Cadaques with Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray to see Salvador Dali 
   and Gala.

 1940 Alexander Calder sketch of her with her cats.
   Along with Samuel Beckett, Gabriella Buffet, and Suzanne Picabia, 
   Reynolds was a leader in the Reistance in Paris, giving refuge to those fleeing Nazi 
   persecution and imprisonment and passing information to the Allies.  
   Gabriella Buffet remembered: - 
   "Around 1941, I began to work with the French Resistance. 
   Mary was the only one to keep papers and documents at home." 
   For someone whose code name was "Gentle Mary," Reynolds was extremely courageous.
   She came under increasing scrutiny from German invasion forces. 
   When she eventually decided to flee, she had to cross into Spain on foot on her 
   way to catch a neutral vessel from Portugal to the United States.
 1942 Dec; arrived Madrid
 1946 Returned to Paris
   To many of her European artist-friends she was a benefactor, assisting them 
   financially when times were rough.

 1950 d. Paris of uterine cancer with Marcel Duchamp at her side

   After her death Duchamp, the executor of her estate, sorted through her correspondence 
   and personal possessions, destroying much of what would have provided clues to 
   her somewhat mysterious role in the Parisian art world.
   See here-> and   here -> and    here ->.
   See work and  web ->.
   See Mary Reynolds Collection.

   See Timeline