MarcelDuchamp

 1887 b. July 28th. The son of a notary of Rouen.
   French American Art Collector Painter Sculptor and mixed media artist

   He was the brother of: -
   Jacques Villon (1875-1963), painter, printmaker 
   Raymond Duchamp-Villon (1876-1918), sculptor and
   Suzanne Duchamp-Crotti (1889-1963), painter.

   Art Historians Recognize Duchamp as the Greatest Influence in 20th century art. 
   Though never a formal member of the Surrealists he was both an inspiration 
   and friends to many of them.

 ==Pre 1920==
 ==1920's==
 ==1930's==
 ==1940's==
 ==1950's==
 ==Pre 1920==
 1908 Duchamp's work was exhibited in the Salon d'Automne. 

 1909 work was featured in the Salon des Independants. 
   Guillaume Apollinaire; who was to become a friend criticized what he called "Duchamp's 
   very ugly nudes." 

 1911 Remet Francis Picabia after meeting him at the Salon d' Automne.
   At his brother Jacques' home in Puteaux, the brothers hosted a regular discussion group 
   with other artists and writers including Picabia, Robert Delaunay, Fernand Leger,
   Roger de la Fresnaye ->, Albert Gleizes ->, Jean Metzinger ->, 
   Juan Gris ->, and  Alexander Archipenko ->.
   This group came to be known as the Puteaux Group, and the artists' work was 
   dubbed  Orphic cubism.
   Birth of a daughter by Jeanne Serre.

 1912 Influenced by reading Raymond Roussel. 
   Meets Guillaume Apollinaire.
   Nude Descending a Staircase was rejected by the Puteaux Group for its exhibition 
   in the Salon des Independants. 
   Later that year he travelled with Francis Picabia, Guillaume Apollinaire and 
   Gabriella Buffet-Picabia through the Jura mountains.

 1914 Emigrates to the then-neutral United States. 

 1915 Arrived in New York where he quickly befriended art patron Katherine Dreier 
   and artist Man Ray. 
   Became involved with Dada.
   Duchamp's circle included art patrons Louise and Walter Arensberg, Francis Picabia, 
   the poet William Carlos Williams? and the composer Edgard Varase.
   Becomes best friends with Beatrice Wood who he introduces to Henri-Pierre Roche.

 1915 Starts work on The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Batchelors, Even. (The Large Glass).

 1916 Sister Suzanne Duchamp and Jean Crotti stayed with him in his New York apartment.

 1917 Fountain - R. Mutt rejected by The Society of Independent Artists, New York. 
   Photographed by Alfred Stieglitz.
   Founder with Beatrice Wood and Henri-Pierre Roche and contributes to The Blind Man.


 1918 Travels to Argentina with the painter Yvonne Chastel ex wife of Jean Crotti. 
   Dedicates his time to playing Chess.

 1919 Returns to Paris.

 ==1920's==
 1920 Created the Society Anonyme with Katherine Dreier and Man Ray. 
   This was the beginning of his life-long involvement in art dealing and collecting. 
   The group collected modern art works, and arranged modern art exhibitions and lectures 
   throughout the 1930's.
   By this time Walter Pach ->, one of the coordinators of the 1913 Armory Show ->, sought 
   Duchamp's advice on modern art. 
   Beginning with Society Anonyme, Dreier also depended on Duchamp's counsel in gathering 
   her collection, as did Walter Arensberg.  
   Later Peggy Guggenheim, Museum of Modern Art directors  Alfred Barr -> and  James Johnson Sweeney -> 
   consulted with Duchamp on their modern art collections and shows, along with Henri-Pierre Roch? 
   and Beatrice Wood. 
   Duchamp with Beatrice Wood published a Dada magazine in New York, entitled 
   The Blind Man, which included art, literature, humor and commentary.
   With help from Man Ray he built a motorized sculpture ''Rotative plaques verre, 
   optique de precision'' (Rotary Glass Plates, Precision Optics).
   Collaboration with Man Ray Dust Breeding ->.

 1921 appearance of Rrose Selavy in a series of photographs by Man Ray showing 
   Duchamp dressed as a woman.
   Moved back to Paris at Andre Breton's urging staying at the apartment of Yvonne Chastel  
   before moving back to New York.  
   Met Man Ray on his arrival in Paris who immediately introduced him to Andre Breton, 
   Louis Aragon, Gala, Paul Eluard, Philippe Soupault who were part 
   of the Dada group who met in La Passage du Opera.
   Given a job in the bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve by Henri Davanne who was Francis Picabia's uncle.

 1922 with the financing of Jacques Doucet, he built another optical device based on the first one 
   - Rotative Demisphere, optique de precision (Rotary Demisphere, Precision Optics).

 1923 long term affair with Mary Reynolds.
   Soiree du Coeur a  barbe?.
   Finishes work on "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Batchelors, Even. (The Large Glass). 
   definitely unfinished ->.

    by Florine Stettheimer.

 1924 Affair with Yvonne Fressingeas who also has Henri-Pierre Roche as a lover.

 1925 from now onwards, he often travelled between France and the United States.

 1926 In collaboration with Man Ray and Marc Allegret?, He filmed early versions 
   of the Rotoreliefs and they named the film Anemic Cinema.

 1927 m. Lydie Fischer Sarazin-Levassor. 
   The wedding was filmed by Man Ray and attended by Francis Picabia.   
   (They divorced six months later).  See ->.

 ==1930's==
 1930 Contributed to Le Surrealisme au service de la revolution.

 1931 In Alexander Calder's studio while looking at the sculptor's kinetic works, 
   Duchamp suggested that these should be called "mobiles". Calder agreed to use this novel 
   term in his upcoming show. 

 1932 Duchamp completed with Vitaly Halberstadt a book on end-games in chess; L'Opposition et les cases 
   conjugues sont reconcilees (Opposition and Sister Squares are Reconciled).

 1933 Visits Cadaques with his companion Mary Reynolds.

 1934 Publication of the Green Box ->; 
   notes for "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Batchelors, Even. (The Large Glass).

 1935 - 1940 Boete-en-valise ->.

 1936 Displays Bottle Rack -> at the Exposition surrealiste d'objects at 
   La Galerie Charles Ratton, Paris.

 1938 Jan. Organizes (with Andre Breton) and exhibits in the [[Exposition 
   Internationale du Surrealisme]] at the Galerie Beaux-Arts, Paris;

 ==1940's==
 1940 With Mary Reynolds flees Paris going to Aranchon near Bordeux and then
   to his sister Yvonnes's house in Sanary-sur-mer near Marseilles.

 1941 Made three trips to Paris as a cheese merchant to collect his artwork.

 1942 May; Escapes France with the assistance of CAS to America. 
   Made New York's Greenwich Village his home.
   Meets Sonja Sekula.
   From then until 1944, together with Max Ernst, Eugenio Granell 
   and Andre Breton, Duchamp edited  VVV, and also served as an advisory 
   editor for the magazine View which featured him in its March 1945 edition.
   First Papers of Surrealism exhibition. See ->. 
   Elsa Schiaparelli was one of the coordinators.

 1943 Instigator of Exhibition by 31 Women at Peggy Guggenheim's Art of this Century.

 1946 Cover illustration for Andre Breton's poetry anthology ''Young Cherry Trees 
   Secured Against Hares''.
   Affair with Maria Martins who is the model for his last artwork Etant donnes ->, see also ->

 ==1950's==

 1954 m. Alexina "Teeny" Sattler; ex wife of Pierre Matisse; they remained 
   together until his death. 

 1955 Became a United States citizen.
   His influence on the art world remained behind the scenes until the late 1950s, when 
   he was "discovered" by young artists such as Robert Rauschenberg -> and Jasper Johns -> 
   who were eager to escape the dominance of Abstract Expressionism.
   Friendship with Arturo Schwartz.

 1959 Satrap in the College of Pataphysics.

 1960 With Andre Breton organized in New York the last official International 
   Surrealist Exhibition. 
   Surrealist Intrusion into the Enchanter's Domain.
   Befriended Simon Watson Taylor.

 1962? In a letter to Hans Richter complains that "Neo-Dada" is an easy way out, 
   living on what Dada really did.

 1968 d. October 2nd. at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France.

   See 1 ->; 2 ->; and 3 ->.

   Bibliography
   Duchamp: A Biography ->  - Calvin Tomkins (1998) 

   See Timeline