Dada

   Dada was the precurser of Surrealism;
   many of whose members moved across on the "death" of Dada.

   A Who's Who.
   Many of the Dadaists were influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche;  
   especially his Human, All Too Human 
   and Twilight of the Idols: Or How One Philosophizes with a Hammer. 


 1915 Members of the New York Dada Group as christened by Hans Richter were: 
   Francis Picabia, Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp. See (Ref).
   They were joined by Beatrice Wood, Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven 
   and Arthur Cravan.
   Much of their activity centered in Alfred Stieglitz's gallery 291, 
   and at the home of Walter Arensberg and his wife Louise.

 1916 Neutral Zurich
   February; the Cabaret Voltaire is founded by Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, 
   Tristan Tzara, Jean Arp, Marcel Janco, Richard Huelsenbeck, 
   Sophie Taeuber, and Hans Richter, along with others. 
   The word "DaDa" was embraced as the name for the new movement.  
   (Tristan Tzara is usually given credit for this discovery). 
   Richard Huelsenbeck travels from Berlin to Zurich to meet with the DaDaists. 
   June; the first issue of "Cabaret Voltaire" appears. 
   July; the first "DaDa Evening" ("DaDa Soiree"), which becomes something 
   of a DaDaist convention. 
   Sept. and Oct. Richard Huelsenbeck publishes a pair of DaDa-inspired books.

 1917 Jan. First Dada Art exhibition At Galerie Corray.  
   Among the exhibitors were Jean Arp, Marcel Janco, Giorgio de Chirico, 
   Otto van Rees, Adya van Rees, and Hans Richter.
   The periodical 391 was first published by Francis Picabia as a 
   bridge between the Zurich dadaists, French surrealists, Marcel Duchamp and others. 
   This is the year of the revolutions in Russia, and the year the U.S. enters 
   WWI against Germany; despite this, there is some DaDa influence in the U.S. and Russia.
   Various modern art exhibits are held in the U.S. which also showcase DaDa-inspired 
   works, and the DaDa movement begins to have an influence on Russian dance. 
   Richard Huelsenbeck returns to Berlin, and founds a DaDa-movement there. 
   March; The "Galerie DaDa" opens in Zurich, featuring works by Tristan Tzara, 
   Jean Arp, and Hugo Ball. 
   Sophie Taeuber danced to one of his compositions.
   The Second and Third "DaDa Evenings" are held there. 
   Periodical Dada is published (issues 1 & 2); editor Tristan Tzara.

 1918 Berlin: - George Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Hoch, 
   Johannes Baader, Richard Huelsenbeck and John Heartfield;
   Tristan Tzara proclaims the DaDa manifesto in Zurich.
   "Club Dada" and "Der Dada" are published in Berlin with contributions by Richard Huelsenbeck, 
   Johannes Baader, George Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, Franz Jung, 
   John Heartfield, Walter Mehring, and Gerhard Preiss. 
   In Cologne, another DaDa group is formed by Max Ernst, and Johannes Theodor Baargeld. 
   After hearing of the DaDa movement in Zurich, a number of artists in Paris, 
   including Louis Aragon, Andre Breton, Paul Eluard, Philippe Soupault 
   and Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes become interested in DaDa. 
   March; The first public DaDa event in Berlin, 
   April; The first German DaDa manifesto is publicized.. 
   July; Tristan Tzara's "25 poems" are published with illustrations by Jean Arp. 
   Sept; An exhibit entitled "Die Neue Kunst" ("The New Art") is held in Zurich, 
   featuring works by several of the dadaists. 
   Dec; "Dada" issue #3 is published.

  1919
   The Dadaists in Berlin come out publicly against the Weimar Republic. 
   Jean Arp joins the dadaists in Cologne. 
   Der Ventilator and Bulletin D are published. 
   Kurt Schwitters begins his Merz in Hannover, with the publication 
   of Anna Blume. 
   "Dada 4/5" and "Der Zeltweg" are published in Zurich. 
   Tristan Tzara leaves Zurich for Paris.

 1920 Dada group in Cologne: - Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Johannes Theodor Baargeld.
   The "Dada-Almanach" is published in Berlin. 
   Raoul Hausmann and Richard Huelsenbeck give a lecture tour on DaDa in 
   Dresden, Hamburg, Leipzig, and Prague. 
   A DaDa exhibition, with works by Francis Picabia, Jean Arp, and 
   Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes takes place in Geneva. 
   DaDa exhibition in Cologne is closed down by the police. 
   "Dada" #6 & #7 are published, 391 continues to be published,    
   Francis Picabia publishes his Cannibale. 
   May; Jean Arp leaves Cologne for Paris, where a "DaDa festival" takes place. 
   June; The "Erste Internationale Dada-Messe" takes place in Berlin.
   Litterature # 13  signatories to the 23 Dada manifestoes.

 1921 Paris Dada group was meeting at a bar in the Passage de L'Opera and included
   Andre Breton, Louis Aragon, Paul Eluard, Philippe Soupault, 
   Tristan Tzara. 
   Other Opera attendees were Gabriella Buffet, Pierre Drieu La Rochelle, 
   Benjamin Peret, Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes.
   Many of these contributed to Litterature magazine.
   Jan 12th. Manifesto signed : E. Varese, Tristan Tzara, 
   Philippe Soupault, Soubeyran, J. Rigaut, Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes, 
   Man Ray, Francis Picabia , Benjamin Peret, C. Pausaers,    R.Halsenbeeks, 
   J. Evola, Max Ernst, Paul Eluard, Suzanne Duchamp, Marcel Duchamp, 
   Crotti, G. Cantarelli, Marg. Buffet, Gabriella Buffet, Andre Breton, 
   Johannes Theodor Baargeld, Jean Arp, Walter Arensberg, Louis Aragon.
   The DaDa journal Bleu is published in Italy. 
   Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray publish New York Dada. 
   Francis Picabia and Andre Breton withdraw themselves from the dadaism movement. 
   A dada exhibition featuring the works of Max Ernst takes place in Paris. 

 1922 May, Dada staged its own funeral. 
   According to Hans Richter, the main part of this took place in Weimar, where 
   the Dadaists attended a festival of the Bauhaus art school, during which 
   Tristan Tzara proclaimed the elusive nature of his art:  
   Dada is useless, like everything else in life. [...] Dada is a virgin 
   microbe which penetrates with the insistence of air into all  
   those spaces that reason has failed to fill with words and conventions
   Max Ernst leaves Cologne for Paris, dissolving the Cologne DaDa group. 
   The DaDa-journal Mecano is published by Theo van Doesburg in the Netherlands. 
   Francis Picabia and Andre Breton publish works attacking the dadaists 
   who, led by Tristan Tzara, publish a counter-attack, but the Paris DaDa group 
   also dissolves. 
   Oct; A "Congress of the Constructivists" is held in Weimar, which is attended 
   by a number of the German dadaists.

 1923
   Marcel Duchamp, in New York, gives up painting. 
   Two final dada stage performances are held in Paris during the summer. 

 1924
   After a publication of a surrealist manifesto by Breton, most of the remaining 
   dadaists join the surrealism movement. 
   Kurt Schwitters' publication Merz continues to be published off and 
   on for several more years.

   See 

   Bibliography 
   Dada's Women - Ruth Hemus (2009). 
   Dada (Themes and Movements) - Rudolf Kuenzli (2006). 

    See Timeline