1896 September 4th. b. Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud in Marseille, son of Euphrasie Nalpas and Antoine-Roi Artaud, natives of Smyrna, Turkey, French Actor, Poet, Writer. "The Magic Cudgel"
==1920's== ==1930's== ==1940's== 1901? Nearly died from meningitis. 1909 Addicted to laudanum administered for attacks of neurasthenia. 1916 Inducted into the army, released in less than a year on grounds of both mental instability and drug addiction. 1918 committed himself to a clinic in Switzerland, where he remained until 1920. During his "rest cures" at the sanatorium, he read Arthur Rimbaud, Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe. ==1920's== 1920 March; moved to Paris. Training and performing notably with -> Charles Dullin -> and Georges Pitoeff ->. 1921 Contributed to Litterature. Met Philippe Soupault, Andre Breton, Louis Aragon and Max Jacob. Started affair with Genica Athanasiou ->. (Picture ->) 1922 Meets Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler who commissions poems from him. Published a volume of symbolist verse strongly [Inspirations|influenced]] by Mallarme, Verlaine, and Rimbaud, Tric trac du ciel (Backgammon of the Sky). Meets Andre Masson in his studio together with his neighbours and Jean Dubuffet, Michel Leiris, Joan Miro and Georges Limbour. Friends with Max Jacob. 1923 Starts correspondence with -> Jacques Riviere ->. 1924 - 1927 Member of Surrealist group. Surrealism came to me at a time when life had managed to weary me utterly, make me despair, and when I had no other outlets except madness or death''. Surrealism was that virtual and ungraspable hope, which was probably as deceitful as any other, but which pushed you in spite of yourself to make one last try. 1 1924 film Fait Divers and Surcourt - le roi des corsairs. 1925 Signed the Declaration of January 27 1925. Becomes director of the Office of Surrealistic Research. Signed Open Letter to M Paul Claudel, French Ambassador to Japon (July 1st). Abel Gance ->'s film Napoleon ->, and Carl Theodor Dreyer ->'s film The Passion of Joan of Arc ->. Artaud wrote many articles for La Revolution Surrealiste and running the Bureau of Surrealist Research, Wrote scenario for first Surrealist film, The Seashell and the Clergyman, directed by Germaine Dulac Influencing Salvador Dali and Luis Bunuel. Address to the Dalai-Lama and Lettre aux ecoles du Bouddha first published in La Revolution Surrealiste; illustrated by Giorgio de Chirico, Paul Klee, Andre Masson, Man Ray and Dede Sunbeam. 1926 met Cesar Vallejo ->. Broke with the organized surrealist movement when Breton became a Communist. Photographed by Man Ray (see above). starts Theatre Alfred Jarry with Roger Vitrac and Robert Aron; partly financed by Yvonne Allendy (nee Nelâ Dumochel d. 1934) and Rene Allendy her husband who was also his therapist. 1927 wrote the filmscript for La Coquille et le clergyman and Les P'e-nerfs (Nerve Scales). Expelled from the Group. With Roger Vitrac and Robert Aron -> founded the Theatre Alfred Jarry, attended by Andre Gide, Arthur Adamov -> and Paul Valery. 1928 La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc Friendships with Anie Besnard, Sonia Mosse + Yvonne Gamelin. Finished liason with Genica Athanasiou, but continued to see her sporadically. ==1930's== 1930 lived with Josette Lusson who posed for photomomtages -> made by Artauld Roger Vitrac and Eli Lotar. Colette Prou, actress was a friend. 1931 Artaud influenced by Balinese dance performed at the Paris Colonial Exposition. 1932 taught to read tarot cards by his friend Manuel Cano de Castro a Costa Rican artist and husband of Therese Treize. 1933 March; Anais Nin gives a vivid picture of Artaud in Incest (pp 191-2), in which she says of him: - “He kissed me devouringly, fiercely, and I yielded. He bit my mouth, my breasts, my throat, my legs. But he was impotent. There was a dead, heavy pause. His faced twisted, then set, stony: ‘Go away,’ he said, go away.’ Hard, cold, brutal… ‘Go away now or later, it does not matter. You’ll despise me anyway…’ [Nin said,] ‘I don’t despise you. All this has no importance…’ (Artaud replied) ‘It has terrific importance for all women.’” Letters to Dr Ferdiere, Dr Latrimoliere, Jean Dequeker, Georges Bataille, Jean Paulhan, Jean-Louis Barrault -> Andre Gide, Michel Leiris, Robert Desnos, Roger Blin, Alain Cuny, Henri Parisot, Gaston Gaillimard 1934 Heliogabale, ou l'anarchiste couronne (1934; "Heliogabalus, or the Crowned Anarchist"). 1935 First Manifesto for a Theatre of Cruelty' published in La Nouvelle Revue Francaise. His production of his adaptation of Shelley's The Cenci premiered with a set designed by Balthus. 1936 travel to Mexico, meeting the painter Federico Cantu ->. Experimented with peyote, recording his experiences, in Voyage to the Land of the Tarahumara. 1937 Artaud returned to France traveled to Ireland Engaged to Cecile Schramme terminated in May. Taught by Manuel de Castro (husband of Therese Treize) to read Tarot cards May; Giving a lecture in Brussels, he went completely out of control and began screaming at the audience. Diagnosed as schizophrenic. Artaud spent the next nine years in mental institutions. 1938 Publication of The Theatre and Its Double, which contained the two manifestos of the Theatre of Cruelty. ==1940's== 1943 - 1944 Successive internments in Cartes de Rodez -> (Spanish). helped by his friends Robert Desnos and Frederic Delanglade who gave him graphite and wax crayons. 1946 Ferdiere released Artaud to his friends, who placed him in the psychiatric clinic at Ivry-sur-Seine. Returned to Paris in triumph, acclaimed as a genius after his three-hour lecture-reading to an audience which included Nobel laureate Andre Gide, future Nobel laureate Albert Camus ->, and Andre Breton. Posthumous sketch -> of Sonia Mosse. 1947 met and influenced Hugo Claus ->. Visited an exhibition of works by Vincent van Gogh which resulted in a study Van Gogh le suicide de la societe. Recorded Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de dieu (To Have Done With the Judgment of god) This work was shelved by Wladimir Porche, the director of the French Radio. Fernand Pouey, the director of dramatic and literary broadcasts for French radio, assembled a panel to consider the broadcast of Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de Dieu. 1948 Among the approximately 50 artists, writers, musicians, and journalists present for a private listening on February 5, were Jean Cocteau, Paul Eluard, Raymond Queneau, Jean-Louis Barrault, Rene Clair, Maurice Nadeau, Georges Auric, [|-> Claude Mauriac]], and Rene Char. Although the panel felt almost unanimously in favor of Artaud's work, Porche refused to allow the broadcast. Friendship with -> Jacques Prevel -> a poet who spent two years as an acolyte to Artaud just before his death suppling him with hard drugs from Parisian pharmacies. 1948 Jan diagnosed with intestinal cancer. d. March 4th. Posthumous 1994? La veritable histoire d'Artaud le momo -> -> Webpage; see also -> and Quotes -> Biografia en Espagnol -> also New York Times -> Everything is oblique -> in these fearsome polite times. Bibliography -> Antonin Artaud - Martin Esslin. -> Artaud Anthology - Ed. Jack Hirschman. (2001) -> Antonin Artaud: Selected Writings with introduction by Susan Sontag (1988) Gerard Mordillat's My Life and Times with Antonin Artaud (En Compagnie d'Antonin Artaud) 1 Revolution of the Mind: The Life of Andre Breton - Mark Polizzotti. who knows who * Pierre Naville * Jacques Prevert * Georges Limbour * Juan Gris * Edgard Varese See Timeline